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These DBMS notes will provide you basic and advanced concepts of Database. Our DBMS Database Management System notes are designed for student pursuing
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These DBMS notes will provide you basic and advanced concepts of Database. Our DBMS Database Management System notes are designed for student pursuing their courses like BSC Cs, BCA, Btech.


Database management system is software that is used to manage the database.

Our DBMS Tutorial contains all topics of DBMS such as introduction, ER model, keys, relational model, join operation, SQL, functional dependency, transaction, concurrency control, etc.


 Database is a collection of inter-related data which helps in efficient retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from database and organizes the data in the form of reports, tables, views, schemas, etc.

For example: The Database of college college organizes the data about the students, admin, staff, and faculty etc.

In which we can efficient retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from it.

Database Management System

The software or application which is used to manage database is called Database Management System (DBMS). For Example Oracle, MySQL, etc. are popular commercial DBMS used in different applications. 

DBMS allows users the following tasks:

  • Data Definition: It helps in creation, modification and removal of definitions that define the organization of data in database.
  • Data Retrieval: It helps in retrieval of data from the database which can be used by applications for various purposes.
  • Data Updation: It is used for the insertion, modification, and deletion of the actual data in the database.
  • User Administration: It is used for registering and monitoring users, maintain data integrity, enforcing data security, dealing with concurrency control, monitoring performance and recovering information corrupted by unexpected failure.

Characteristics of DBMS

  1. It is used to provide security of data
  2. It can reduce the complex relationship between data.
  3. It is used to support manipulation and processing of data.
  4. It uses a digital repository established on a server to store and manage the information.
  5. DBMS contains automatic backup and recovery procedures.
  6. It can view the database from different viewpoints according to the requirements of the user.

Advantages of DBMS

  • Controls database redundancy: It can control data redundancy because it stores all the data in one single database file and that recorded data is placed in the database.
  • Data sharing: In DBMS, the authorized users of an organization can share the data among multiple users.
  • Easily Maintenance: It can be easily maintainable due to the centralized nature of the database system.
  • Reduce time: It reduces development time and maintenance need.
  • Backup: It provides backup and recovery subsystems which create automatic backup of data from hardware and software failures and restores the data if required.
  • multiple user interface: It provides different types of user interfaces like graphical user interfaces, application program interfaces

Disadvantages of DBMS

  • Cost of Hardware and Software: It requires a high speed of data processor and large memory size to run DBMS software.
  • Size: It occupies a large space of disks and large memory to run them efficiently.
  • Complexity: Database system creates additional complexity and requirements.
  • Higher impact of failure: Failure is highly impacted the database because in most of the organization, all the data stored in a single database and if the database is damaged due to electric failure or database corruption then the data may be lost forever.


File System manages data using files in hard disk. Users are allowed to create, delete, and update the files according to their requirement. Let us consider the example of file based University Management System. Data of students is available to their respective Departments, Academics Section, Result Section, Accounts Section, Hostel Office etc. Some of the data is common for all sections like Roll No, Name, Father Name, Address and Phone number of students but some data is available to a particular section only like Hostel allotment number which is a part of hostel office.



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